To explain the second serfdom, two questions must be answered: why did demands for serfdom appear across Europe from the mid-14th century onwards, and why were these demands only successful in eastern Europe? Market integration is theoretically inconsistent in explaining the former and contradicts the evidence in explaining the latter. Instead, there is strong empirical evidence that demographic collapse answers the first question. While demography can begin to answer the second, it requires an accompanying explanation of why peasants' outside options were lower in the east. This is provided by eastern Europe's underdeveloped military and economic structure.
How to Cite:
Jacobs Strom, B., 2020. To What Extent was the 'Second Serfdom' a Consequence of Market Integration?. Knowles Review of Economic History, 1(1), pp.50–58.